Master blacksmith Wayland is well-known from Germanic mythology. The blacksmith who was kept captive on a small island in the sea, and escaped from it with selfmade wings. The Saxons, Anglo-Saxons, Norwegians, Icelanders, in fact, all the old Germanic peoples had their own medieval stories or artifacts relating to Wayland. Even the Franks did. All, except but one, the Frisians. But, as it turns out, Frisia can make the oldest claim of all.
Several early-medieval gold solidi with Frisian personal names of (big) men on it have been preserved. These are: Audulf, Had(d)a and Skanomodu. The first name is written in Latin as AVDVLFVS and AVDVLFO and found on several coins. The latter two names are written in Anglo-Frisian runes, respectively ᚻᚨᛞᚨ and ᛋᛣᚨᚾᛟᛗᛟᛞᚢ. The Skanomodu solidus is unprovenanced, and was part of the collection of King George III, which was donated to the British Museum in the year 1825. Read our post Porcupines bore U.S. bucks to learn more about these costly coins/solidi and who were behind the faces.
Yet another solidus is known. It is an obscure gold coin carrying the Anglo-Frisian runic inscription ᚹᛖᛚᚩᛞᚢ. The runes have been deciphered, and the name of none other than Weladu was revealed. Indeed, Wayland the Smith. The language in which Wela[n]du is written is Old-Frisian (a.o. Düwel, 2018). With that, it belongs to one of the oldest artifacts testifying of the Old-Frisian language.
In contrast to linguists and rune-specialists, historians proper have not paid much serious attention to this coin up to now, and therefore not much intell is available. For this reason, an APB was put out by the Frisia Coast Trail on Twitter and on Facebook in thde month November 2019. Tips subsequently received, disclosed where the coin was being held, and scarce images of this coin were traced as well. The solidus is being kept in the Ostfriesisch Landesmuseum Emden, region Ostfriesland in the northwest of Germany. The coin was accidentally discovered in the year 1948 on a field near the village of Schweindorf, also in region Ostfriesland. It is dated between 575-600 or between 575-625. Behold:
The coin has traces of being used as a pendant. This as such was not an uncommon practice. Sporadically, scholars even suggest the ‘coin’ might have been a bractaete, instead of a solidus right from the start. We think it is originally a solidus, a coin. These solidi could be used as currency but had the function of prestige too, and were hoarded a lot. Not long after this solidus is dated, silver pennies or sceattas would be introduced in big numbers to facilitate the growing Frisian, supra-regional free-trade. The runes are written backwards, by the way. Again, not an uncommon practice.
Legend of Wayland the Smith
Who would have thought that besides the Flying Dutchman there is yet another flying Frisian in history? Who would have thought Wayland is possibly a Frisian blacksmith, and that his true, native name is Weladu? Weladu was, as said, a master blacksmith. He forged the finest jewelry, swords and mail-shirts. With the aim forced labor he was overpowered by the cruel King Niðhad (or Nithad), king of the Njars, whilst he was asleep. The Njars are a people in present-day southern Sweden. Weladu was imprisoned on a small island in the sea. Both hamstrings of Weladu were cut, so he could not walk and escape from the island. During his captivity, he was being forced to forge the most beautiful jewelry et cetera.
His luck changed when the two sons of the king came to the island and to his smithy. Obviously, Weladu killed them. From the boys’ skulls he forged two goblets, from their eyes he forged jewels and from their teeth he forged a brooch. The goblets he gave to the king, the jewels to the queen, and the brooch to the king’s daughter Böðvildr, also known as Beaduhilde. To sublimate his revenge, one day he intoxicated princess Böðvildr and subsequently raped her. The princess got pregnant, of course. From bird feathers Weladu made wings, and with these feathers he flew to King Niðhad. To fabricate these wings, his brother Egill helped him out. Weladu told the king all the horrible things he did to the king’s offspring. Then, like a true Daedalus, he flew off. Never to be seen or heard of again. Until 1948, near the village of Schweindorf in Ostfriesland.
There is much more to tell about the legend of Wayland, like his love affair with the Valkyrie Swanhilde just before he was abducted to the island. Also, that Wayland is the creator of the magic sword named Gram and of a magic ring. Check it out on the web too, it all is very interesting.
Different written sources have been preserved, each with a (slightly) different version of the life of Wayland or Weladu. And, with all the different sources and cultures, Wayland’s name is written in many ways: Wēland/Welund, Weyland, Völundr/Vølund/Vǫlundr, Velent, Wieland, Wiolant and, thus, Weladu. This list probably is not comprehensive, neither are the sources of the legends of Wayland mentioned below.
The first source to mention is the ninth or tenth-century, Old-English epic poem Beowulf. It tells that Wéland, or Wayland, is the maker of the battle-shirt (i.e. mail-shirt) warrior Beowulf was wearing, and of which Beowulf asked it to be sent to King Hygelac “if the battle would take him”. King Hygelac of the Geats, however, would die before the hero Beowulf would, namely during a raid in Frisia at the lower branches of the River Rhine, early sixth century.
Onsend Higeláce, gif mec hild nime,
beaduscrúda betst, Þæt míne bréost wereð,
hrægla sélest, Þæt is Hraédlan láf,
Wélandes geweorc. Gaéð á wyrd swá hío scel.Beowulf
Send to Hygelac, if I am taken by battle, | the best of battle-shirts, that protects my brest, | choicest of garments, that is Hrethel’s relic, | Wayland’s work. Fate takes its course.
The second source is the Old-English poem The Lament of Deor, or simply Deor. It is part of the tenth-century literary collection known as the Exeter Book or Codex Exoniensis.
Welund him be wurman, wræces cunnade,
anhydig eorl, earfoÞa dreag.
Hæfde him to gesiÞÞe, sorge ond longaÞ,
wintercealde wræce; wean oft onfond,
siÞÞan hine, Niðhad on, nede legde,
swoncre seonobende, on syllan monn.
Þæs ofereode, Þisses swa mæg.Deor
Wayland the blade-winder, suffered woe, | that steadfast man, knew misery. | Sorrow and longing, walked beside him, | wintered in him, kept wearing him down, | after Nithad, hampered and restrained him, | lithe sinew-bonds, on the better man. | That passed over, this can too.
The third is the thirteenth-century, Old-Icelandic poem Völundarkviða. The fourth is the mid-thirteenth century Old-Norse Þiðreks saga, or Thidreksaga.
Besides written sources, also medieval artifacts ‘speak’ of Wayland the Smith. This is a representation of the lay of Wayland depicted on the so-called Ardre VIII image-stone dated eighth or ninth century, and found at the town of Ardre in Sweden. Furthermore, what is known as the Franks Casket. An Anglo-Saxon whale’s bone casket dated early-eighth century, and kept in the British Museum in London (see image below). On the frontside left, a scene of the legend of Wayland the Smith is shown. Lastly, three tenth-century stone crosses depicting the legend of Wayland have been preserved in the towns of Leeds, Sherburn-in-Elmet, and Bedal. All three in the UK. However, the oldest artefact by far is the gold solidus with the Old-Frisian runic inscription Wela[n]du from Schweindorf. And with that, the oldest, tangible proof testifying of blacksmith Wayland, or more correct from now on, Weladu.
Did Weladu forge the Wijnaldum disc-on-bow brooch?
If you have ever seen the so-called Wijnaldum disc-on-bow brooch in the flesh in the Fries Museum in the city of Leeuwarden, you can not help wondering how and who made it. Such craftsmanship. Check out our post Ornaments of the Gods found in a mound of clay to learn more about this brooch. Could it possibly be Weladu was somehow historical, knowing blacksmiths were highly valued in early-medieval society? And if so, could it be he made this brooch? The smith was even protected by law. The Old-Frisian law the Lex Frisionum dated ca. 790 protected the craftsman of metal as follows:
Qui harpatorem, qui cum circulo harpare potest, in manum percusserit, componat illud quarta parte maiore compositione, quam alteri eiusdem conditionis homini. Aurfici similiter.Lex Frisionum
Who hits the hand of a harp-player, who can play harp in a circle (audience), pays with a fourth bigger fine, as with another man of the same status. Goldsmiths likewise. (Lex Frisionum)
If we take as assumptions that names on solidi were those of rulers or of ‘big men otherwise’ who ordered the production, and that those men were still alive while their coins were being cast, since they normally did not authorize coinage with names of others, of competitors, then Weladu must have lived at the time this gold solidus was issued. The coin, as said, is dated 575-625. A talented blacksmith who later became a legend, perhaps. A more eatable variant of this theory is, that it was not Weladu the Smith who created this solidus but just a (big) man who also carried the name of the legendary blacksmith (Düwel, 1968). This might mean that the Germanic legend of Wayland the Smith pre-dates 575-625. Unless, the name Weladu was your average first name, and had nothing to do with the legend. Just coincidence.
An alternative explanation to the one where (a) Weladu produced the solidus, is that the image on the coin represents the legendary Weladu. In this scenario the creator of the solidus wanted to depict the legend of the famous blacksmith (Oehrl, 2011). The standing figure might be holding a snake in his hands. Furthermore, the figure is more or less confined in space by the fantasy Roman letters. These elements together would refer to the snake pit Weladu stayed in, according to the Deor poem. The words ‘be wurman‘ in the Deor poem might be understood as referring to snakes. A translation not without controversy among learned experts, though. But according to other scholars, this whole snake-pit construct, including the interpretation of the Deor poem, is all too far-fetched (Nedoma, 1990).
We humble hikers would like to add to this discussion that this representation of Weladu is almost identical to the aforementioned gold solidus of Had(d)a found in the town of Harlingen, the Netherlands. If you adhere to the somewhat complicated snake-pit theory (Beck, 1980), then the Had(d)a coin depicts Weladu as well. But why then, carries that coin the name Had(d)a?
Argument against the just described alternative scenarios, is that in general the solidius fits within the early-medieval tradition of copying former solidi of the Roman Period. Secondly, the image actually does not feature any obvious ‘smithy’ elements, and this would have been the logic thing to do if you want to impress the public with depicting the legend. Why hassle with snakes and other circumstantial stuff, if one could take an anvil or wings instead, which would have been clear symbols to everyone? Remains, it is a traditional, though a bit sloppy, imitation of a Roman emperor. Sloppy, especially if you compare this solidus with the one found in the UK with the Frisian name of Skanomodu, also in runes.
Our conclusion? We opt for the most obvious option. It was Weladu the Smith, of course. A choice without any bias. It was Weladu a talented, Frisian blacksmith who made the coin, and put his name on it in Frisian language, in runes, and who later became a legend. Plus, it is a coin found on Frisia territory as well.
Tradition of Klaasohm – Then there is folklore called Klaasohm (‘ohm’ meaning uncle: (Ni-)Cholas-uncle) at the Wadden Sea island Borkum in Ostfriesland (see image above). The celebration of Klaasohm has several striking parallels (in bold below) with the legend of Wayland the Smith. Each year on December 6th, men dress up as Klaasohms. It means they are dressed in sheep skins and feathers and wings of birds. After they have scared the island and hunted for women, they even try to fly away. That is done by jumping from an elevation onto the crowd below. Schweindorf and Borkum are both in former Frisia and less than fifty kilometers apart, as the crow flies. Are the ‘Klaasohms’ therefore, in fact, representations of Weladu?
And we are still baffled by the fact that part of the famous sixth-century voyage of the Irish monk Saint Brendan, who crossed oceans and seas, passed an island of blacksmiths who, by the way, threw slag at Saint Brendan’s boat.
Let’s take a quick look at the extravagant disc-on-bow fibula found in the terp (i.e. an artificial settlement mound) of Wijnaldum in the Netherlands. It is dated ca. 625. So, there is a small time slot. It is very small, since some historians date the Schweindorf solidus between 575-600. Besides the time slot, the village of Wijnaldum lies in former Frisia, present-day province Friesland, and is located 140 kilometers west of the village of Schweindorf, as the crow flies. Not too far remote from each other, and both Schweindorf and Wijnaldum were part of Frisia at that time.
And if you think we are pushing the envelope, everything starts with ‘but what if?’
Blacksmiths and the Devil
Blacksmiths started to fulfill a crucial role in societies once mettalization started, meaning the moment metal became an important commodity in society. The Stone Age ended in Europe around 2300 BC, and from then on started the Bronze Age which lasted till about 500 BC. Then the Iron Age took over. It is from the Bronze Age that the agency of the smith became crucial. His skills to produce (durable) commodities for daily use, items for value exchange, weapons, and items for rituals and religious purposes. Also, the blacksmith was able to convert commodities and items belonging to one of these categories to one of the other categories, by re-melting and re-forging it. The specific quality of metal above stone or wood. This agency gave the blacksmith a mythical, almost super-natural position, and resulted in all kind of legends like we discussed in this post.
In province Groningen in the Netherlands, people use the expression ‘dat mag smid waitn‘ (that is for the smith to know) which is a variation of the Dutch expression ‘dat mag Joost weten‘ where Joost represents the Devil. Thus, the blacksmith and the Devil are exchangeable. In Mid-Frisian language exists the expression ‘it geheim fan de smid‘ (the secret of the smith).
In province Friesland a myth (in many variations) exists about a heathen blacksmith whose ghost haunts the many waters around the village of Eernewoude.
The Blacksmith of Eernewoude
Wybo (or Wibo) was a blacksmith in the village of Eernewoude. He was a tall man, and one the last descendants of the heathen king of Frisia, King Radbod. A king also known as the Enemy of God. The mother of Wybo was heathen still. Wybo was a rough and insolent man. For one thing, he robbed defenseless widows and orphans. People whispered the blacksmith had made a pact with the Devil. The mother of Wybo was filled with hatred toward anything that had to do with Christianity.
Not far from Eernewoude lay the town of Wartna, also called Warten. A town founded by King Radbod. Radbod had warned that if a fratricide ‘brother murder’ would occur, the town of Wartna would go down. Since Radbod, the town had become prosperous and also Christian, including a monastery at the River Smalle Ee. A monk called Bouwe was head of that monastery. Bouwe was a foundling, and the monastery had taken care of him.
For the mother of Wybo the monastery was the source of evil, and she hatched a wicked plan to get rid of Bouwe by her son. Thinking, that would turn things for the better. Wybo killed Bouwe, when Bouwe was on his way late in the evening. But when Wybo’s mother saw Bouwe’s body up close, she made a terrible discovery, namely that monk Bouwe was her lost son. She could see it because of the mark of Radbod on his chest. Fratricide was a fact.
Not soon after, a terrible flood with towering waves as high as houses, hit province Friesland. Thousands of people died and the town of Wartna was wiped away. Blacksmith Wybo and his mother drowned too. The prophecy of King Radbod became reality.
The soul of Wybo never found peace. For centuries now, his ghost is loose and roams the region of Eernewoude. People call him the Langesleattemer Man, ‘Man of Langesleat’. Sometimes skippers saw the dead blacksmith. Walking over the water with his face down to the ground, like he was in terrible agony. Many stories exist about people who not lived to tell their encounter with the dead smith of Eernewoude.
We cannot end this post without mentioning the patron of blacksmiths and goldsmiths, namely Saint Eligius. He lived from 588 to 600. Eligius was a blacksmith and apprentice of Abbo, a goldsmith and mint master in the town of Limoges. During his career he came to work at the court of Chlothar II, king of Neustria. This, after he had forged a golden throne inlaid with jewels. Later, he became one of the king’s advisors. The antithesis of Weladu who killed the king.
Note 1. Since the Wikipedia page of Wayland the Smith did not mention the gold solidus of Weladu, it was edited accordingly by the Frisia Coast Trail bastards recently. With this, pushing the date of the oldest reference of (the name of) Wayland or Weladu with at least a century back in time, compared to the sources mentioned on the page till then.
Note 2. Wayland and music. Composer, and unfortunately also with anti-Semitic sympathies, Richard Wagner drafted in 1849-1850 the opera libretto Wieland der Schmied but nobody was interested to produce it. Eventually, it was Jan Levoslav Bella who made an opera out of it and produced it in Bratislava, former Czechoslovakia in 1926. The same anti-Semite sentiments existed around the audience of the Swedish rock band Völund Smed in the ’90s. Dutch singer Willem Bijkerk chose Waylon as his stage name. Whether he was inspired by Wagner or by the Frisian legend Weladu, should not be a question. It was the country singer and songwriter Waylon Jennings who inspired him. Nevertheless, we encourage Willem to change his stage name into Weladu. Lastly, a music band in Michigan, USA named Wayland exists.
Note 3. At Ashbury in the UK the megalith long-barrow is nicknamed Wayland’s Smithy, since the tenth century already. The stone structure itself is dated 3600 BC. Popular belief is that when you leave your horse with some money coins behind at ‘the smithy’ for a while, the horse will be shod when you return. Till this day people perform pagan rituals, stick coins everywhere, and also for Druidry this megalithic mound is an important object.
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