Mud flats are treacherous. Yes, the Wadden Sea stretching along the coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is UNESCO protected. We support that. But, when hiking the Frisia Coast Trail and you go walkabout on its flats at low tide, do so with the utmost care because UNESCO does not give you protection. “It is neither land nor sea,” as the Roman Plinius wrote at the beginning of the first century AD. Probably he was informed by the Roman commander Corbulo and who must have had amazing analytical skills.
At the dike at the hamlet of Zwarte Haan (literally meaning ‘black rooster’ but actually derived from ‘dark corner’) on the seafront in the north of province Friesland in the Netherlands, stands a statue of a slikwerker ‘mud worker’. Their work in the mud was to accelerate sedimentation of clay. This way creating new marshlands eventually becoming new arable land. Mud workers were doing a nearly impossible job at the mud flats of the Wadden Sea. From the Netherlands to Denmark, from Zwarte Haan to Esbjerg. Here, at low tide, the poor but strong men dug trenches and laid dams (in German called a Lahnung, in Mid-Frisian a riisdaam and in Dutch a rijsdam).
Deus mare, Friso litora fecitGod created the sea, the Frisians the coast
If you have ever walked on the mud flats and sank into the wet clay to your knees or even deeper, you know walking these flats is tiring. And, a bit frightening too. As a boy, author of this blog post once found a full-grown cow in the salt marshes with only its head and backbone (still) above the clay. The animal was still alive and the owner was notified, of course. If you have ever shoveled a full day, you know this is hard work. Imagine it is wet clay you shovel. If you have ever stand in the sea during spring, you know it is cold.
Well, the mud worker combined everything of the above. With their hard labor, mud workers slowly took back land from the Wadden Sea. Land that had been lost over the last two thousand years or so. The reclamation of this land was emotional and belonged to the psyche of the northerners, of Germany and of the Netherlands: the Ditmarsians and the Frisians.
Reclamation of land was an activity of the church during the High Middle Ages. In the spirit of the book of Genesis, cloisters, monasteries and abbey’s tried to finish the creation of land. It were especially the severe, skinny monks of the Cistercian Order that were very much involved in this line of hard work. With the Reformation in the sixteenth century, though, land reclamation became a task of farmers, the so-called dijkgraafs ‘dike counts’. In English language called a dike-warden and in German a Deichgraf. A task of water boards too, which in German language are called Wasserverbände and in Dutch waterschappen. In the Netherlands, from the first half of the twentieth century reclamation of land became a task of the central government. Since then, gaining new land no longer was the sole objective. Tidal marshlands were increasingly regarded as a first barrier to protect the land, as well. To slow down rough seas and that way protecting the dikes behind it.
The traditional way of reclaiming land was to start building low dikes of earth at the salt marshes to speed up sedimentation. From the twentieth century onward, these dikes were replaced by low dams made of wooden pools filled with brushwood. The so-called rijsdams or Lahnungs mentioned earlier. The Dutch copied this technique already practiced in region Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. But whereas in Germany the construction of rijsdams was restricted to the already silted up tidal marshlands itself, in the Netherlands rijsdams were constructed at the adjacent mud flats as well. Indeed, on the sea floor itself. Only accessible at low tide. It were rows placed both transversely and parallel to the main dike. Thus creating mud fields of exactly hundred square meters.
Wood and other materials were transported both from land-side with little trains over the salt marshes and from seaside with ships. The latter were unloaded at low tide. With little mud sleds the wood was transported to the final location. The rusted rails of the narrow gauge train tracks can still be found in the salt marshes of the Noarderleech in the Netherlands when hiking the Frisia Coast Trail from the hamlet of Zwarte Haan to the terp (i.e. an artificial dwelling mound) village of Holwerd. Often old rails have been reused into foot bridges. Go quickly, because they are disappearing.
If you want to know more about these weird mud sleds, but also the fun you can have with them on the mud flats, read our blog post Racing the Wadden Sea with a sled.
But it was not only mud workers who took from the sea. Sometimes the sea took a mud worker. “The sea gives and takes,” as the saying goes in the Netherlands. Although, this refers mainly to caught fish and drowned fishermen. One such story, from January 1961, has been preserved.
It is the tragic story of Willem van der Ploeg. Being a mud worker he worked on the flats behind the Westpolder in the Netherlands. A party of seventeen workers from the districts Achtkarspelen and Kollumerland had started that day at 08:00 o’clock in the morning. Willem worked together with Klaas Nieuwenhuizen and with Jan van Seggeren. During lunch break at around 11:30 hours they were looking for a dry tidal plate to get warm feet when suddenly a dense fog came up. Dike and salt marshes were no longer visible. High tide made the sea flow across the tidal plates too. Only a few of the fifty shades of grey remained. This potentially deadly combination makes you lose your orientation completely. From the moment the sea floods the tidal plates, there is no way you can tell anymore where the deep creeks are.
As a hiker of the Frisia Coast Trail this would be the moment to reach for your GPS or SPOT device. They were not that fortunate half a century ago. Instead, the men disagreed on the proper course to safety. They had to move because the sea would swallow the plates and mud flats soon. After that, the waterwolf, rising to 2,5 meters, would certainly swallow them as well. A trapped feeling you might compare with being inside a smoking house burning down. Willem decided to go in one direction. The wrong direction as it turned out. To swim better he took off his coat and boots. His two colleagues went the other direction.
For two hours Jan and Klaas swam and waded through the cold and dark water. It was January. Jan was so exhausted, Klaas had to drag him the final stretch to one of their dams. Klaas left Jan behind not having the strength anymore to drag him any further. Klaas knew the dam would lead him to the coast. He reached the dike, finally. By now, it was high tide. After being warned by Klaas, other mud workers hurried themselves to bring Jan into safety too. Farmers and mud workers then began a search for Willem.
Only his jacket and boots were found
When in 1969 the Lauwers Sea (Lauwerszee) was sealed off form the sea and turned into Lake Lauwers (Lauwersmeer), and the sea was thus pushed back again once more, the new road on the former Zoutkamp tidal plate was named after Willem. And when you go to, for example, the salt marshes of province Friesland at the hamlet of Zwarte Haan, or at the village Peasens-Moddergat today, you can still see the dam and trench relics of those though men. The gens durissima maritima.
Walking the sea yourself
There are numerous places where you can hike the sea during the Frisia Coast Trail. Walking from the coast to islands and back. Everywhere from province Friesland to Kreis Nordfriesland. Even from island to island. Walking from the island Texel to the island Vlieland is even possible. It is not for the faint heart. As a crow flies, this distance is only three kilometers. Walking it, is thirty kilometers. It means you have to defy a full high tide at sea, called overtijen in Dutch. That can be during the night too. You build your own scaffold of poles and nets, called a wadstoel ‘wad stool’ to hang above the sea during high tide and -if possible- to sleep in. Thrilling experience.
overtijen in a wadstoel
But please, keep the sad story above in mind when you challenge these endless mudflats, creeks and tides of the Wadden Sea. If you go walking the sea do not forget to bring your waterproof GPS or SPOT device or -even better- a guide of flesh and blood. This is genuine dangerous wilderness.
Below some information and a few addresses:
- Wattlaufen.com, Lüttmoorsiel, Germany
- Watterleben, Büsum, Germany
- Wattwanderzentrum, Carolinensiel, Germany
- Wattwandererlebnis, Husum, Germany
- Wadloopcentrum Fryslân, Holwerd, the Netherlands
- Wadloopavonturen, Wehe-den-Hoorn, the Netherlands
- Wadgids, Ezinge, Ezinge, the Netherlands
- Wadloopcentrum Pieterburen, Lauwersoog, the Netherlands
- Vadehavscentret, Ribe, Denmark
Note: credit featured image of this post to Erik de Graaf.
- Essink, K., Visserman gered door grenspaal in de Dollard (2016)
- Blanken, H., Wadloper (1983)
- Kok, A., Randland. Portret van de Friese en Groningse kuststrook (2002)
- Rooijendijk, C., Waterwolven. Een geschiedenis van stormvloeden, dijkenbouwers en droogmakers (2009)