The Killing Fields, of the Celts

About 2,000 years ago a tragedy unfolded. A sixteen-years-old girl, who suffered during her young life from scoliosis, was killed. Her red hair was shaved off on one side, she was stabbed at the base of her neck on the right shoulder, and strangled with a woolen rope. The rope was still around her neck. After this, she was placed in the bog. It all happened near the Celtic fields in what was then the territory of the Frisii, the Frisians, near the current village of Yde in province Drenthe. It was not investigative journalism that brought this crime to light, but two peat cutters who found her in the year 1897. In this post we will investigate this cold case, and dig a bit deeper into the early world of the Frisians.

Girl of Yde

When both peat cutters found the mummy of the red-haired girl in the Bourtange Moor, they thought it was the Devil, and ran away from her at first. For several days, the body was left laying unprotected. The villagers continued where their ancient predecessors left off, and kept molesting her. They took out many of her teeth and pulled out her hair as well. The Girl of Yde, as the mummy is commonly known, was brought to life again by medical artist Richard Neave in 1992. He reconstructed her face. Other details of the girl are that she was about 1,40 meters tall and wore a woolen cloak. Her scoliosis was serious, and she probably was cripple. The Girl of Yde is exhibited in the Drents Museum.

After the reason behind her killing, we can only guess. Most scholars assume it was a sacrifice and suggest even that because of her look of peace, she was drugged beforehand. Just as well, she might have been punished. Or even, the woolen rope was, in fact, a shawl. We shall never know, probably. Good to know, is that her find is not unique. Everywhere in wet and rainy north-western Europe where peat lands exist (or existed, since most have been commercially excavated) bog bodies have been found. Think of the Tollund Man and the Lindow Man. Both were strangled as well. The Tollund man is said also to have a look of peace too. They could not have all smiled, one tends to think. Anyway, these north-western peat lands stretched from the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany to Denmark, and to a lesser extent to Sweden as well. Indeed, places where it rains a lot.

Celtic fields

That brings us to the landscape of northern Germany and the Netherlands. During the Late Iron Age and the Early Roman Period, people lived on different types of habitat, namely: the tidal marshlands adjacent the sea in the north, the estuaries and riverbanks everywhere along the coast, the dunes and sandy ridges along the western coast of the Netherlands, and elevated areas bordering the peat lands more inland. The peat lands squeezed between tidal marshlands and sandy elevations, as it were. Often former ground-moraine ridges. Living on elevated, sandy soils next to the lower, boggy peat lands, offered good possibilities for agriculture, as we shall see further below. It is here where the so-called Celtic fields or keltischer Felder developed, also called raatakkers or Ackerterassen in respectively Dutch and German language. Proximity of water might also have offered the possibility to supplement the diet with protein from fish. And, it had a ritual meaning, as we shall explain further below.

Celtic Fields

We will focus on the Celtic fields of the Frisii in the north of the Netherlands, just south of the city of Groningen. The so-called Noordse Veld ‘Northern Field’. This is a fascinating area, since in the wider area not only the Girl of Yde has been found, but also burial mounds, urn fields, a small temple, and several walled enclosures annex fortified structures are located. All dating from the Middle and Late Iron Age.

Habitation history even goes even back 6,000 years with the presence of the many, more than 50, dolmen in this region. That is, by the way, still younger than the wooden canoe found at the village of Pesse in province Drenthe, which is dated about 9,500 years old. Hence the oldest water vessel of the world and exhibited in the Drents Museum also. Read our blog post Oldest Vessel of the World. Side remark, dolmen or tumuli are called hunebedden in Dutch, which translates as ‘beds of the Huns’. Also, the natural landscape of the wider region is unique, because nowhere else in northwestern Europe, or even in the world, are that many pingo ruins (ice lens ruins) to be found as here. These date from the Ice Age. Many turned into little fens, and according to regional superstitions these fens have no floor.

Research at the Noordse Veld started at the beginning of the twentieth century, supported by the Drents Praehistorische Vereeniging ‘Drenthe Pre-historian Association’. However, already in the seventeenth century, the German historian Johan Picardt finds the landscape archaeological hopeful and he suggests that the earthworks are part of former, heathen hiding places of the Suebi tribe. The Suebi was probably the name of a confederacy of Germanic tribes living more to the east of the Netherlands in Germany. The introduction of the Suebi is more a grab bag selection. Nevertheless, Celtic fields are terribly old and existed in north-western Europe, especially the Netherlands, Belgian Kempian plateau, north-western Germany and Denmark and southern Scandinavia. The fields date generally between 1,000 BC – AD 100, and contributed further to the deforestation of the region. The first phase of the transformation process from a natural landscape into a cultural landscape started during the Late Bronze Age, about 3,000 years ago (Van der Velde, 2017). The use and creation of Celtic fields seize to exist more or less with the arrival of the Romans in the first century. When comparison is made with the Celtic fields of Britain, the ones in the Netherlands have a more rectangular shape and are not embanked with stones but with, what else, earthworks.

Recent studies revealed more insight into how the land was being worked (Arnoldussen, 2017). Morphological research indicates that non-local soil was imported to the fields. This soil came from wetlands. Furthermore, this imported soil was admixed with dung and house debris. House debris is recognizable through the charcoal and the many ceramic sherds. Some even speak of a Scherbenschleier ‘a veil of sherds’ laying over the Celtic fields (Klamm, 1993). The suggestion is that the imported, wet soil was first used in stables and after cleaning the stables carted to the fields, explaining the dung traces.

Using pot sherds, is something which has clear parallels with how the native peoples of the Amazon worked the land when their societies transformed from slash and burn farming into intensive farming, about 3,000 years ago. To protect the soil, which stays unprotected longer with intensive farming, they produced enormous quantities of pottery, to be smashed and spread over the land. That way protecting the soil against the generous, hard rain. It is the black earth called terra preta, ‘black soil’ and it is full of pot sherds, loads of charcoal, and organic waste of settlements. The charcoal was not simply a residue of fireplaces. People actively produced charcoal to optimize fertilization of the soil admixture (Mann, 2006).

Another intriguing aspect is how things worked with those embankments surrounding the fields. These banks are many centuries old. The development of the banks might have been as follows. At first the fields were fenced with wattlework to protect crops against grazing of domestic and wild animals alike. And, maybe also to mark the property. Then, over time refuse of the land was thrown along the fences, together with compost admixtures (of imported, non-local soil, dung, charcoal, and sherds) carted from the farmsteads. Every season the bank sediment, the Celtic terra preta, was used as fertilizer and for protection of the soil. A net sediment preservation must have caused the banks to slowly grow over the centuries (Arnoldussen, 2017).

Heathen encampments

The area we are focusing on in this post is colloquially known as the heidense legerplaats ‘heathen encampment’. This because of the four fort-like structures in this area. Two sites are located near the village of Zeijen, one near the village of Rhee, and one near the village of Vries. The sites have a wall strengthened with a palisade, with an additional, small moat, and three to six additional palisades. Some structures had proper gate structures as well. The period these structures were in use, is between ca. 650 BC – AD 100. This is based on the pottery finds (especially the Ruinen-Wommels, Paddepoel and Wijster types) and on comparison with other excavations (Waterbolk, 1977). Structure Zeijen II might be the successor of structure Zeijen I.

impression of the Zeijen II fortified structure by Ulco Glimmerveen

Purpose and function of these Late Iron Age structures is heavily disputed, till this very day. Only concerning the one near Rhee there seems to be agreement this was a walled, small settlement. There is no unanimous view among scholars concerning the other ones. Far from that, and theories vary widely. From a hiding place for cattle during cattle raids of other tribes, a place for livestock after the grazing season at the salt marshes, a place to stock grains, a fortified village, a fort of a local ruler to control through ways, a regional staple place, a religious place, to a place with simply a symbolic function, or a combination thereof (Beek 2019, Hiddink 1999, Van der Tuuk 2013, Van Giffen 1937, Waterbolk 1977). In other words, we have no clue. Not even consensus exists on the structures found within the premise of the walls. It seems there were granaries inside most, but also these differ in shape and size from what is normally the case. Other structures are considered either farmsteads, houses, temples (in the case of Vries), barns or stables. All very confusing for us simple hikers, and we are mentally off balance.

So, comparisons made by scholars, as is done, with Iron-Age hill forts in Britain, the Viereckschanzen ‘four-corner fortresses’ in southern Germany, or with the Heidenschanze ‘heathen fortress’ in northern Germany, must all be guesses that rather belong to the game Wheel of Fortune (although you have to be careful with wheels and Celtic gods). The fortified structures itself, however, are unique for the Netherlands. Nowhere else have similar structures been found of this period.

Temple of sacrifice in the bog

We want to make mention of another unique find in the same region, although a bit older than the timeframe we discussed earlier. It is the little temple, or place of sacrifice, of Barger-Oosterveld, near the town of Emmen in province Drenthe. It was placed in wetlands, in peat lands. It consisted of four two-meters-high, wooden pillars, topped with cross beams with horn-like endings.

impression temple Barger-Osterveld

It might have been a sacred place, a place of sacrifice, or a place for safe passage through the bog swamps. Of course, it keeps guessing since we were not there to observe what people did with it. However, this structure fits the historical theory that wetlands had a special, spiritual meaning during and from the Bronze Age onward (Eijnatten, 2006). Take for example the ritual deposits of the six magnificent, Bronze Ommerschans-Plougrescant swords in England France, and the Netherlands, which are all in wetlands (Fontijn, 2020). One of the six swords is even deliberately deformed before being deposited in the soil. Even during the Early Middle Ages, (deformed) swords and jewelry were thrown in lakes and seas, like in lake Tissø, Denmark. It is therefore thought that the human sacrifices in peat lands, the so-called bog bodies, deliberately took place in watery environment.

And, if you think it through, an option might also be that the Girl of Yde was not killed for her deformities but because she represented something valuable, she represented a special value. Just like an Ommerschans-Plougrescant sword.

Are the Frisians guilty?

The Girl of Yde was killed in the bog in the beginning first century. The area was according to the Romans the territory of the Frisians (Frisii). The analysis of the pottery of the Celtic fields of the Noordse Veld, including the walled structures are of Frisian culture, are like the pottery found at the tidal marshlands, and therefore Frisian. At least over the period 200 BC till AD 100.

imression of Celtic warriors

So, the finger points to the Frisians who have killed her. However, modern Frisians may excuse themselves because the Frisii are, in fact, only limited ancestor of modern Frisians. During the period ca. 325-425 the salt marshes almost emptied, to be repopulated mainly with immigrants from northern Germany and southern Scandinavia around mid-fifth century (read our blog post Have a Frisians cocktail). The whole history of the Celtic fields also supports the idea that the original or first Frisians (Frisii) were a Celtic people and not Germanic. No matter what the Romans said. For more on this identity issue, with a bit more nuance, read our post Celtic-Frisian heritage: There’s no dealing with the Wheel of Fortune.


Note – Below animation of the Celtic fields at the Utrechtse Heuvelrug (‘Utrecht Hill Ridge’), central the Netherlands.

Further reading:

  • Arnoldussen, S., The Fields that Outlived the Celts: The Use-histories of Later Prehistoric Field Systems (Celtic Fields or Raatakkers) in the Netherlands (2018)
  • Arnoldussen, S. & Linden, van der M., Palaeo-ecological and archaeological analysis of two Dutch Celtic fields (Zeijen-Noordse Veld and Wekerom-Lunteren): solving the puzzle of local Celtic field bank formation (2017)
  • Arnoldussen, S. & Vries, de K.M., A plan in place? Celtic field habitation at Westeinde (2017)
  • Beek, van R. et al, The landscape setting of bog bodies: Interdisciplinary research into the site location of Yde Girl, The Netherlands (2019)
  • Deem, J.M., Yde Girl, Bog Body from the Netherlands. An unforgettable bog body, originally thought to be the devil (blog)
  • Eijnatten, van J. & Lieburg, van F., Nederlandse religiegeschiedenis (2006)
  • Fontijn, D., Economy of Destruction. How the systematic destruction of valuables created value in Bronze Age Europe c. 2300-500 BC (2020)
  • Geheugen van Drenthe, Versterkte nederzettingen (website)
  • Giffen, van A.E., Een versterking naar Romeinsch patroon op het Noordscheveld bij Zeijen, Gem. Norg (1936)
  • Giffen, van A.E., Omheinde, inheemsche nederzettingen met aanliggende tumuli, leemkuilen en rijengrafveld te Rhee en Zeijen, Gem. Vries (1937)
  • Giffen, van A.E., Omheinde, inheemsche nederzettingen, tumuli, enz. te Rhee en Zeijen, Gem. Vries (II) (1938)
  • Hiddink, H.A., Germaanse samenlevingen tussen Rijn en Weser: 1e eeuw voor-4e eeuw na Chr. (1999)
  • Klamm, M., Aufbau und Entstehung eisenzeitlicher Ackerfluren (“celtic fields”). Neue Untersuchungen im Gehege Ausselbek, Kr. Schleswig-Flensburg (1993)
  • Koops, B., Steeds meer pingoruïnes. Het Noorden ontdekt volle schatkamers (2020)
  • Levine, J., Europe’s Famed Bog Bodies Are Starting to Reveal Their Secrets. High-tech tools divulge new information about the mysterious and violent fates met by these corpses (2017)
  • Mann, C.C., 1491. New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (2006)
  • Smit, B.I. et al (eds), Beschermingsprogramma archeologie 2013. Selectievoorstel voor 28 nieuwe archeologische rijksmonumenten (2014)
  • Spek, T. et al, Archeologische waardering van Celtic fields in Drenthe Een verkennend methodologisch onderzoek (2009)
  • Stijn, A., Het Celtic Field te Zeijen-Noordse veld (2012)
  • Todd, M., The Early Germans (1992)
  • Tuuk, van der L., De Friezen. De vroegste geschiedenis van het Nederlandse kustgebied (2013)
  • Velde, van der H.M. et al, Living on the Edge? Transformation of a Marginal Pleistocene Landscape Into a Settlement Area in the Northeastern Part of the Netherlands (2017)
  • Vries, de F., Soil boring? My take on the image problem of soil science (2015)
  • Waterbolk, H. T., Getimmerd verleden. Sporen van voor- en vroeghistorische houtbouw op de zand- en kleigronden tussen Eems en IJssel (2009)
  • Waterbolk, H.T., Walled enclosures of the Iron Age in the North of the Netherlands (1977)
  • Waterbolk, H.T., Wonen op de Wadden. 1500 jaar boerderijbouw op onbedijkte kwelders (2009)

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