This is your DIY manual for enlarging or creating your own terp. Your artificial settlement mound or platform. Despite terps are being made for more than 2,600 years, this manual is the first of its kind. We sincerely hope it is not too little too late, now that terp-building is on the rise again and we have observed it happens often in an amateurish way. With that, taking unnecessary risks.
Although most terps were built in the period between 650 BC and AD 1050, it is still a current solution. Take for example the terp of the town of Wieringerwerf in the reclaimed land of Wieringermeer Polder in province Noord Holland. The town was founded in ’30s of the last century. The terp of Wieringerwerf was even of service at the end of World War II when the dikes of the Wieringermeer Polder were destroyed. Read our blog post Refuge on a terp 2.0, waiting to be liberated, about this catastrophe. The most recent terps were built ten years ago, in region Overdiepse Polder in province Noord Brabant. It is part of the Delta Plan after serious flooding caused by the big rivers Rhine and Meuse two decades ago. And the folks of the village of Blije in province Friesland have a cunning plan to do so too.
However. It deeply troubled the Nordfriesen and the Ostfriesen in Germany, and the Frisians in province Friesland in the Netherlands, that the folks of province Noord Brabant, and of province Noord Holland already before, do not obey all necessary rituals and procedures. In time this might have very serious consequences for the safety and health of people who dwell on these terps. Therefore, Frisia Coast Trail felt it was urgent to produce a manual to avoid future, similar irresponsible behavior.
Be warned that children should construct terps only under direct supervision of an adult. Adults should read the instructions, and in particular all warnings, carefully. Of course, we are not responsible for any injuries or accidents.
Let’s start. Be prepared, it is literally a lot of bullshit!
If you want to know where in the landscape erecting a terp is opportune, check the site www.overstroomik.nl (translation: will I be submerged?) provided by the Netherlands’ Government. Really, this site and its title are not meant to scare people, but to show you where your house submerges in case a dike breaks, and to be prepared. These are the spots where this manual comes in handy. The website is only available in Dutch language, and thus not accessible for expats living in the Netherlands. The number of expats is between 40,000 and 75,000 persons and are mostly living in the low-laying coastal zone of provinces Noord Holland and Zuid Holland. Who is counting?
- eight (or more) skulls of ancestors
- ten kilogram cattle meat with bones
- one heirloom piece
- three cooking pans (not too small)
- ten kilogram pottery
- eight hundred cubic meter cow dung (depending on your ambitions)
- stack of firewood
- box fire matches
- sea shells (enough to cover the terp surface)
Best time to erect a terp is in early summer. You don not want to work with dung in the heavy spring, autumn and winter rains. Also, for the containers to drain (see Step 7 below) would take ages. Last but not least, making fires (see Steps 8 and 9 below) in these rains is nearly impossible.
- Place your ancestral skulls at the spot where you want the terp to be erected, or an existing terp enlarged. WARNING!: Do not hurry off to kill some of your (close) family members. No! You need to collect remains of your already deceased family members. The terp is to protect you and your family, and the remains will call upon your ancestors for extra protection. Instead, there are many Grave Registration Services on the internet that can help you to locate graves of your ancestors. Some traditions recommend to add a dog skull. This manual considers it optional, as this practice of dog skulls is more related to the maintenance of a house and not that of a terp.
- Place the meat with bones near the human skulls. Make a little pile of it. The traditional way was that several cows were slaughtered for the occasion. You can go to a local butcher but spare ribs from the supermarket will suffice too. Argentinian matured T-bone steaks are unnecessary expensive, and do not give a better result. Of course, we stimulate to use biological products. An option of last resort is to use jelly sweets, since they consist partly of cattle bone. As a rule of thumb: ten kilogram jelly sweet for every kilogram of meat.
- Place the heirloom piece near the skulls too. Taking a piece from your in-laws is acceptable as long as it has serious sentimental value for your in-law family. It is up to you whether or not you ask permission from your loved in-laws.
- Now the hard work starts. It feels like Heracles cleaning the Augean stable. Dump the cow dung with the shovel gently over the skulls and over all the other items. There is no alternative but to use predominantly cow dung, since it has a great insulating effect. No human dung, please. Sorry, keep using toilets. WARNING!: Neither horse dung, since it is highly infectious. Blending with sheep dung is not such a problem. Where it comes down to, is that you need loads and loads of dung. In this respect not much has changed over the last 2,600 years: cow dung has always been plentiful at the salt marshes. In the old days used for fuel and, of course, for building terps. Later, after the big dikes emerged 1,000 years ago, and the sea was banned, dung was suddenly needed as fertilizer. And, its insulating effects are now a threat for the climate.
- Dig ditches around the terp. About a meter wide, but not much broader. For a man of average weight and strength it must be possible to fierljep (‘to far-leap’) over the ditch with a four-meter-long leaping pole. The ditches have multiple purposes. Firstly, they are for draining purposes. Secondly, they mark your territory. Thirdly, they have a spiritual meaning, namely fencing of the inner world form the outer (scary) world. Check the Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum, the eighth-century list of heathen practices of the Frisians and the Saxons.
- Wait until dusk.
- At dusk, take the cooking pans and drill a small hole in the bottom. Similar as the Mayas later did too with the pottery they buried with the dead. The traditional way of the Frisians was to grab used cooking pots of clay. Essence is that you need containers. Then and now. So, modern pans are perfectly okay to use. Mark the pans from the outside with some of your own blood. No specific patterns prescribed. Fill the pans with a sticky substance that slowly drips through the hole into the dung. Place these containers on the spot above the skulls, meat and heirloom piece.
- Make a few small piles of wood and light the piles. Again, above the spot where the skulls are buried. WARNING!: Make sure the cow dung is not too dry, to prevent the whole terp from catching fire. Dried dung is flammable. And we are not in Nordfriesland in February during biikin celebrations.
- Wait until the liquid in the cooking pans has fully been drained into the dung. You will have enough time to have dinner in the meantime. Important to keep the fires burning.
- Collect the pottery once the liquid is drained. It can be all sorts of pottery. If you are tired of the Delft Blue wall tiles; use those. But roof tiles, your neighbor’s china, et cetera, is fine too. Smash the pottery with a hammer and bury it together with the empty perforated cooking pans in a pit somewhere in the newly created terp. Smash or deform the pans too. The Frisians were fanatics in breaking pottery and collected meaningful pieces for decades. If you think this is weird, think of a Greek wedding.
- Dump some of the pottery pieces in the ditches surrounding your terp too. If you have some spare bones of your ancestors left, put it there together with the pottery pieces. It stresses the mark of your territory like a dog pisses against a tree. And, the water in the ditches protects your house or inner-world against the spiritual, angry outer-world as well.
- Lastly, cover the surface of the new terp with a thick layer of sea shells to have a solid and less smelling floor.
The ritual practices above have been confirmed by archaeologists; Nieuwhof, A., Eight human skulls in a dung heap and more. Ritual practice in the terp region of northern Netherlands 600 BC-AD 300 (2015).
Between Leffinge-Oude Werf and Misthusum: Understanding the Basics of Terps
First of all, we must make clear that the terps we dealt with in this manual, are terps built on the clay soils of the (former) salt marshes.
A terp, in essence, is a man-made, raised mound to dwell on, and to protect buildings from inundation. Whether that is on the tidal marshlands bordering the sea, on the peatlands adjacent to the salt marshes, or along rivers and at river mouths. Exactly the habitats of broader historic Frisia. Terps can be a mound to support a single house, a platform, or a mound to support a small settlement.
Therefore, besides terps on the salt marshes or ‘salt-water terps’, this definition also includes the hundreds of terps found in the peat lands of modern province Noord Holland, especially in the region Waterland, but also the town-terps of settlements like Monnickendam and Amsterdam. These so-called ‘sweet-water terps’, in connection with rivers and peat lands, existed in the thousands in the Netherlands (Besteman, et al 1992).
‘Salt-water terps’ can be found in relatively large numbers especially along the Wadden Sea coastal zone of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The oldest terps can be found in the region Westergo in province Friesland. From there, terps spread eastward into Germany. The northernmost terp is that of Misthusum in the southwest of Jutland. It regrettably has been abandoned in the year 1814.
Because people lived on terps on the tidal marshlands before high dikes existed, the sea could flow out over a vast area of marshland during storm floods. Terps were on average not much higher than 4 meters above mean sea level (MOD, Meters above Ordnance Datum). Higher was simply not necessary. The sea just flowed out during storms without, in general, causing too much damage because of this enormous storage capacity.
The highest terp of all is the one at the hamlet of Hogebeintum, namely almost +9 MOD. Why the people of Hogebeintum built such a high terp when +4 meters was already enough, we do not know. Was it perhaps to show off? “Look us having a big terp!” Or were simply very anxious people? Other famous terps are those of Feddersen in Landkreis Cuxhaven and Ezinge in province Groningen. The latter is also nicknamed ‘the Pompeii of the North’.
Other ‘salt-water terps’ can be found elsewhere too, i.e. not along the Wadden Sea coast. For example more to the south in province Noord Holland, like the terps of Avendorp, Eenigenburg and Hemkewerf near the town of Schagen. Further south, in West-Flanders in Belgium, you can find them at the village of Leffinge, the village of Bredene, and at Oude Werf near Leffinge. The terp of Oude Werf being the most southern terp as well. Other terps in Eastuary the Zwin region are being suspected at Knokke, Koudekerke, Oostkerke, Ramskapelle and Westkapelle. Also the toponyms Lockwierde, Houtwerf, Outvaarts Werf, Bogaerts Werf, Zuidwerf, Stekels Werf, Boenzacs Werf, Blevins Werf, Barezeles Werf, Molenwerf, Monnikewerve, Wallewerve, Weerdenwal, and many many more, all might refer to terps in this region. Much archaeological research still has to be done in West-Flanders and the Estuary the Zwin region. Check also our post The Frontier known as Watery Mess: the coast of Flanders to find more information about the early-medieval Flemish-Frisian terp habitation in western Flanders.
Also, on (former) Islands of Marken and Schokland in the (former) Zuiderzee ‘southern sea’ you can find terps. Island Marken still is, more or less, an island-Hallig, whilst Schokland is now part of the reclaimed land called Noordoostpolder. Even underneath the town of Den Helder in the upper north of province Noord Holland, lies an old ‘salt-water terp’ waiting for its revenche, named Het Torp.
“It is a platform, not a terp!”
When talking about numbers, the estimation is about 500 terps in the (former) tidal marshlands of province Friesland (Besteman, et al 1992). The house platforms have been left outside this number. Numbers vary too. During a stock-take, including house platforms, in 1905 the number of terps amounted 574 in province Friesland, and in 1944 the number amounted 910. The most recent numbers (2020) are that in province Friesland 955 terps have been identified of which 679 have been partially or completely leveled, and in province Groningen 587 of which 268 have been partially or completely leveled. However, still new terps are being discovered in the landscape. The total, original, number of terps in the Netherlands, both terps proper and house platforms, is estimated almost 2,500 (Nieuwhof 2020).
Therefore, if we want to be more precise, we should talk about ‘terp remains’ instead of terps since nearly all terps have been commercially exploited and excavated. The only terps you can see in provinces Friesland and Groningen, are the remains of once much more impressive terps, or those that are fully covered with houses, church and farms and therefore escaped commercial exploitation.
Around the year 1900, terps in the Netherlands (less in Germany) were being excavated massively for commercial purposes. The rich terp soil, the terra preta of the Low Countries, was sold as fertilization for poorer soils, such as the sandy soils in province Drenthe. Terp soil was sold at 70 cent (guilders) per tonne in 1890, which was a lot of money back then. In 1920 the soil even cost 110 cents per tonne. In the ’40s commercial quarrying of terp soil stopped, Not because of the Second World War started. No, simply because not many terps were left to exploit. A positive side effect was, that because of these excavations many artifacts have been found. At the same time, much historical (provenance) data has been lost, and small artifacts are scattered all over the country.
Finally, notice that we used the word terp as used in province Friesland -and recently in province Noord Brabant too. People in province Noord Holland, however, mostly use the word werf. In province Zeeland and Flanders the word werve is being used, although the toponym wi(e)rde or weerde and stelle also exist. The word werve in province Zeeland mainly because people there prefer to put an e behind every single word they pronounce. In province Groningen, the word wierde is always being used. Official German is Wurt but the Ostfriesen and the Nordfriesen use mainly resp. Warf and Warft. The Frisere ‘Frisians’ in the very southwest of Jutland use the words værft or varft.
The Old-Frisian word hwarf and the current word werf and all the variants aforementioned, indicates a mound or a landing. Werf or Warft would, therefore, actually be a more appropriate terms for a dwelling mound than the word terp. The word terp is related to the word torp (Danish), doarp (Mid-Frisian) or dorp (Dutch). However, it is terp that found its way into the English and Flemish language, and therefore we settle the discussion this way. Majority rules.
For a full overview of all the nearly thirty (30!) different names that exist for terp check the atlas ‘De Bosatlas van de Wadden,’ p 32-33, published by Noordhoff Atlasproducties (2018). They failed to list one in this list, namely vliedberg ‘flee mountain’, as (also) being used in region Flanders and province Zeeland. The word vliedberg can donate a mound for cattle the flee to during floods, it can be a remnant of motte-and-bailey castle, or a terp proper.
Note 1 – On behalf of all the Frisians we do apologize for the global warming effects of their dung culture!
Note 2 – Two more terps have been built in the Netherlands recently, and both in the municipality of The Hague. Both as monuments, and not meant for a setteltment platform. These are the Terp of Vink, and the terp at the town of Leidschenveen. Read our post Terp or wierde?. Even more exotic, in ’30s of the twentieth century, the dairy farm Friesche Terp was set up in Pengalengan, near Bandung in the Dutch-Indies, present-day Indonesia.
Note 3 – In province Friesland, the inhabitants of village Blije set up the project Terp fan de Takomst ‘terp of the future’ and are determined to build a terp at the tidal marshland again, north of the village Blije. It would be the first terp build on the salt marsh after more than a thousand years.
Note 4 – You can be giggly about the practice of digging ditches and marking your territory with pottery and bones of your ancestors, but it is actually the foundation of modern Western society. Ditches, banks, walls, hedges and so on, embodied control over resources through agricultural property rights. They gave among others expression to social relationships, status and communal identity. Yes, identity originally was determined by the land the group possessed, and not by genes and origin (Oosthuizen 2019).
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- Deckers, P., Ervynck, A. & Tys, D., De vroegmiddeleeuwse bewoning van de kustvlakte: de terpsite Leffinge-Oude Werf (2012)
- Dijkstra, M.F.P, Rondom de mondingen van Rijn en Maas. Landschap en bewoning tussen de 3de en 9de eeuw in Zuid-Holland, in het bijzonder de Oude Rijnstreek (2011)
- Doorn, van F., De Friezen. Een geschiedenis (2021)
- Ervynck, A., Deckers, P., Lentacker, A., Tys, D. & Neer, van M., ‘Leﬃnge-Oude Werf’: the ﬁrst archaeozoological collection from a terp settlement in coastal Flanders (2012)
- Frankfurt, H.G., On Bullshit (1986)
- Halbertsma, H., Terpen tussen Vlie en Eems. Een geografisch-historische benadering (1963)
- Knol, E., Hogebeintum aan snee (2019)
- Knol, E., et al, The medieval cemetry of Oosterbeintum (Friesland) (1996)
- Mann, C.C., 1491. New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (2006)
- Nieuwhof, A., 650 Terpen langs de Noordzee (2018)
- Nieuwhof, A., Eight human skulls in a dung heap and more. Ritual practice in the terp region of northern Netherlands 600 BC-AD 300 (2015)
- Nieuwhof, A., Bakker, M., Knol, E., Langen, de G.J., Nicolay, J.A.W., Postma, D., Schepers, M., Varwijk, T.W., Vos, P.C., Adapting to the sea: Human habitation in the coastal area of the northern Netherlands before medieval dike building (2019)
- Nicolay, N. & Langen, de G. (red), Graven aan de voet van de Achlumer dorpsterp (2015);
- Nieuwhof, A., De lege vierde eeuw (2016)
- Nieuwhof, A., Ezinge Revisited. The Ancient Roots of a Terp Settlement. Volume 1: Excavation – Environment and Economy – Catalogue of Plans and Finds (2020)
- Nieuwhof, A., Scherven brengen geluk. Aanwijzingen voor opzettelijk gebroken aardewerk (2018)
- Oosthuizen, S., The emergence of the English (2019)
- Popta, van Y. & Aaldersberg, G., Onbekend, maar niet onbemind: terpen en terponderzoek in de Noordoostpolder (2016)
- Roessingh, W., Een archeologische opgraving op ‘Het Torp’ (2018)
- Zwaenepoel, A. & Vandamme, D., Herders, schapen en natuurbeheer in de Zwinstreek (2016)